Understanding @RequestParam vs @PathVariable in Spring: A Comprehensive Guide

Naveen Metta
4 min readApr 12, 2024
credit goes to the owner : https://howtodoinjava.com/spring-mvc/spring-pathvariable-and-requestparam/
source : howtodoinjava.com

In the realm of Spring Framework, especially in Spring Web applications, two annotations play crucial roles in handling HTTP requests and mapping URL parameters to method parameters: @RequestParam and @PathVariable. While both serve similar purposes, they have distinct functionalities and are suitable for different scenarios. In this article, we'll delve deep into the nuances of these annotations, providing clear explanations and abundant code examples in Java.

What is @RequestParam?

The @RequestParam annotation in Spring MVC is used to extract query parameters from the request URL. Query parameters are typically appended to the URL after a question mark (?) and separated by ampersands (&). For example, in the URL http://example.com/api/products?id=123&name=Laptop, id and name are query parameters.

Usage of @RequestParam:

public ResponseEntity<Product> getProductById(
@RequestParam Long id,
@RequestParam(required = false) String name
) {
// Method logic to retrieve product details

In the above example, id and name are extracted from the query parameters of the request URL. The required attribute of @RequestParam can be set to false to make a parameter optional.

What is @PathVariable?

On the other hand, the @PathVariable annotation is used to extract values from URI templates. URI templates are parts of the URL path enclosed in curly braces ({}). For instance, in the URL pattern /products/{id}, id is a path variable.

Usage of @PathVariable:

public ResponseEntity<Product> getProductById(@PathVariable Long id) {
// Method logic to retrieve product details based on ID

Here, id is extracted from the URL path and used to fetch the corresponding product information.

Differences Between @RequestParam and @PathVariable:

  1. Source of Data:
  • @RequestParam: Extracts data from query parameters in the request URL.
  • @PathVariable: Extracts data from URI templates in the URL path.
  1. Optional vs. Mandatory:
  • @RequestParam: Parameters can be optional by setting the required attribute to false.
  • @PathVariable: Path variables are mandatory; they must be present in the URL path.
  1. Syntax:
  • @RequestParam: Followed by the parameter name in the method signature.
  • @PathVariable: Precedes the parameter name in the method signature.

Choosing Between @RequestParam and @PathVariable:

  • Use @RequestParam for accessing query parameters when the parameters are optional or when dealing with a large number of parameters.
  • Use @PathVariable when the parameters are mandatory and part of the URL path, especially in RESTful APIs where the URL structure reflects the resource hierarchy.

Advanced Usage and Scenarios:

1. Combining @RequestParam and @PathVariable:

Sometimes, you might need to use both @RequestParam and @PathVariable in the same method to handle complex URL structures. Consider the following example:

public ResponseEntity<List<Product>> getProductsByCategory(
@PathVariable String category,
@RequestParam(required = false) String sortBy
) {
// Method logic to retrieve products by category

Here, category is extracted from the URL path using @PathVariable, while sortBy is a query parameter specified optionally.

2. Customizing Request Parameter Names:

By default, @RequestParam expects the parameter name in the URL to match the method parameter name. However, you can customize the parameter name using the name attribute. For instance:

public ResponseEntity<List<Product>> getProductsByCategory(
@RequestParam(name = "categoryName") String category
) {
// Method logic to retrieve products by category

In this example, the query parameter categoryName is mapped to the method parameter category.

3. Handling Multiple Path Variables:

In some cases, you may need to extract multiple path variables from the URL path. Spring allows you to do this by specifying multiple @PathVariable annotations in the method signature:

public ResponseEntity<List<Product>> getProductsBySubcategory(
@PathVariable String category,
@PathVariable String subcategory
) {
// Method logic to retrieve products by subcategory

Best Practices and Considerations:

  • URL Design: Design clean and intuitive URLs that reflect the resource hierarchy for better readability and understanding.
  • Consistency: Maintain consistency in parameter naming conventions across the application to enhance code maintainability.
  • Performance: Be cautious when dealing with a large number of query parameters, as excessive parameters can impact performance.


In Spring MVC, @RequestParam and @PathVariable are essential annotations for handling HTTP requests and extracting parameters from URLs. Understanding their differences and appropriate usage is crucial for building robust and efficient web applications. By mastering these annotations, developers can create well-designed APIs with clean and intuitive URL structures.

In summary, @RequestParam deals with query parameters, while @PathVariable extracts values from URI templates in the URL path. Both annotations have distinct purposes and are chosen based on the requirements of the application.

Now armed with a comprehensive understanding of @RequestParam and @PathVariable, developers can confidently leverage these annotations to build powerful and scalable Spring applications.

This article has provided detailed insights into @RequestParam and @PathVariable, accompanied by numerous Java code examples, empowering developers to utilize these annotations effectively in Spring applications. By exploring advanced usage scenarios, best practices, and considerations, developers can further enhance their understanding and proficiency in handling HTTP requests in Spring.



Naveen Metta

I'm a Full Stack Developer with 2.5 years of experience. feel free to reach out for any help : mettanaveen701@gmail.com