Mastering API Documentation with Swagger Annotations: A Deep Dive into @ApiParam and @ApiModelProperty in Java

Naveen Metta
5 min readApr 18, 2024
credit goes to the owner :
source :

Swagger annotations play a pivotal role in documenting RESTful APIs, offering developers a means to enhance clarity, consistency, and usability. Among the plethora of annotations provided by Swagger, @ApiParam and @ApiModelProperty stand out as indispensable tools for providing comprehensive documentation in Java-based projects. In this extensive guide, we will embark on a journey to explore these annotations in depth, uncovering their attributes, nuances, and practical applications through abundant code examples.

Unveiling the Power of @ApiParam Annotation:

At the heart of API parameter documentation lies the @ApiParam annotation, a versatile tool that enables developers to describe parameters of RESTful API operations with precision and clarity. By applying @ApiParam to method parameters in controller classes, developers can provide essential information about the parameters, guiding API consumers on proper usage and understanding. Let's dissect the attributes of the @ApiParam annotation to gain a deeper understanding:

  • name: The name attribute specifies the name of the parameter, which is displayed in the Swagger UI, aiding users in identifying and understanding the purpose of the parameter.
  • value: With the value attribute, developers can provide a concise description of the parameter, offering insights into its intended usage and significance within the API operation.
  • defaultValue: By setting the defaultValue attribute, developers can specify a default value for the parameter, providing a fallback option and simplifying testing scenarios.
  • required: The required attribute indicates whether the parameter is mandatory or optional, guiding API consumers on the necessary inputs for invoking the API operation.
  • allowableValues: With the allowableValues attribute, developers can define a range of acceptable values for the parameter, enforcing data integrity and guiding users on valid inputs.
  • dataType: The dataType attribute specifies the data type of the parameter, ensuring consistency in data representation and handling across API endpoints.

To illustrate the practical usage of @ApiParam, let's consider a scenario where we need to document a Spring Web MVC controller method:

public class ProductController {

private ProductService productService;

public ResponseEntity<Product> getProductById(@PathVariable @ApiParam(value = "Product ID", required = true) Long id) {
Product product = productService.getProductById(id);
return ResponseEntity.ok(product);

In this example, the @ApiParam annotation is applied to the id parameter of the getProductById method, providing essential information about the parameter such as its description and requirement status.

Unlocking the Potential of @ApiModelProperty Annotation:

While @ApiParam excels in documenting API parameters, @ApiModelProperty shines in the realm of detailing model properties within Java classes. This annotation, commonly applied to entity classes or Plain Old Java Objects (POJOs), offers developers a means to provide comprehensive documentation about the properties of data objects returned by API operations. Let's delve into the attributes of the @ApiModelProperty annotation to grasp its full potential:

  • value: The value attribute allows developers to provide a descriptive summary of the property, enhancing understanding and clarity for API consumers.
  • name: With the name attribute, developers can specify the name of the property, ensuring consistency between documentation and code, thereby reducing confusion.
  • required: The required attribute indicates whether the property is mandatory or optional, providing valuable insights into the structure and expectations of the data object.
  • dataType: By setting the dataType attribute, developers can specify the data type of the property, ensuring consistency and integrity in data representation.
  • example: With the example attribute, developers can provide illustrative examples of the property's value, aiding API consumers in understanding the data structure and usage.
  • hidden: The hidden attribute allows developers to conceal sensitive properties from the documentation, ensuring privacy and security compliance.

To demonstrate the practical application of @ApiModelProperty, let's consider a Java entity class representing a User object:

public class User {

@GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.IDENTITY)
private Long id;

@Column(nullable = false)
@ApiModelProperty(value = "User's full name", required = true)
private String fullName;

@Column(nullable = false)
@ApiModelProperty(value = "User's email address", required = true)
private String email;

// Getters and setters omitted for brevity

In this example, the @ApiModelProperty annotation is applied to the fullName and email fields of the User entity class, offering detailed documentation about these properties, including their descriptions and requirement status.

Navigating the Differences and Best Practices:

While @ApiParam and @ApiModelProperty serve distinct purposes in API documentation, understanding their differences and best practices is essential for harnessing their full potential:

  • Purpose: @ApiParam focuses on describing API parameters in controller methods, aiding in API usage and understanding, while @ApiModelProperty is used to detail model properties within Java classes, ensuring clarity and consistency in data representation.
  • Attributes: Developers should provide clear and concise descriptions for parameters and model properties, use consistent naming conventions to enhance readability and maintainability, and specify accurate data types and requirements to guide API consumers effectively.

By incorporating these best practices and leveraging the unique capabilities of @ApiParam and @ApiModelProperty, developers can create API documentation that empowers users to interact with APIs confidently, fostering seamless communication between API providers and consumers.

Exploring Advanced Use Cases and Scenarios:

While the basic usage of @ApiParam and @ApiModelProperty covers most documentation needs, there are advanced use cases and scenarios where these annotations can be further customized and extended to meet specific requirements. Let's explore some of these advanced use cases and scenarios:

  • Custom Data Types: In addition to primitive data types, @ApiParam and @ApiModelProperty can be applied to custom data types and objects, allowing developers to provide detailed documentation for complex data structures.
  • Enum Values: When documenting parameters or properties with enumerated values, developers can leverage the allowableValues attribute to specify a list of acceptable values, ensuring clarity and consistency in API usage.
  • Grouping and Ordering: Developers can group and order API parameters and model properties by applying additional annotations or configurations, enhancing the organization and navigability of API documentation.

To illustrate these advanced use cases, let’s consider an example where we have a Java enum representing different roles for users:

public enum UserRole {

By incorporating @ApiParam or @ApiModelProperty annotations with appropriate configurations, developers can provide comprehensive documentation for enum parameters or properties, including allowable values and descriptions.


In conclusion, mastering Swagger annotations such as @ApiParam and @ApiModelProperty is essential for creating comprehensive and user-friendly API documentation in Java-based projects. By understanding the nuances of these annotations, harnessing their attributes effectively, and adhering to best practices, developers can elevate the quality of their API documentation, empowering users to interact with APIs confidently and seamlessly.

Whether documenting API parameters in controller methods or detailing model properties within Java classes, @ApiParam and @ApiModelProperty annotations serve as indispensable tools for fostering communication and understanding between API providers and consumers. By embracing these annotations and exploring advanced use cases and scenarios, developers can unlock the full potential of Swagger documentation, paving the way for robust and efficient API development in Java.



Naveen Metta

I'm a Full Stack Developer with 2.5 years of experience. feel free to reach out for any help :